Tuning, Temperaments And Bells
Errors Chart

Church Bells

What Is Temperament?

Maj/Min 3rds Chart

Beat Rate Charts

Interval Charts

1/4 comma mean tone shown diagramatically Meantone Tunings

Well Tempered Tunings

Modified Meantone Tunings

Non Well/Meantone Tunings

Well Tempered Tunings

Tuning My piano

This site is intended to explain something of the tuning of keyboard instruments and bells; both were until recently, poorly understood. Now, much has been published on the tuning of keyboard instruments, but there is but little written upon the intervals of bells, and how musical trends have influenced the bell founder. The revival of unequal temperament (well tempered tuning) is slowly but surely gathering pace. The discovery in 1975 by Dr. Herbert Anton Kellner, that Bach's tuning for "Das Wohltemperirte Clavier" (The Well Tempered Clavier) was for unequal temperament and NOT equal, was certainly a major factor that triggered off this revival. We are fortunate to live in an age when we are able to listen to the expression and variety that unequal temperament gives, in contrast to the colourless uniformity of equal temperament. My work at the Whitechapel Bellfoundry in London, where I am responsible for the tuning of tower bells, together with an interest in the tuning of keyboard instruments, prompted me to produce these web pages. In the coming months, I intend to add more information on the tuning of bells.

September 2002. I had three different versions of Rameau's tuning. The first one I published was my interpretation. The version I have uploaded this month is I believe the "real" one. Certainly it makes a lot of sense as far as practical tuning is concerned. In particular, the "equal-beating" wide 5ths. I have also uploaded my method of tuning Kirnberger III.